Effects of and Coping with SOEs Notably, all participants reported psychological distress, and nearly all reported physical safety anxiety domination hypervigilance, in response to SOEs. These findings converge with prior research, whereby White and Black cisgender women experienced higher levels of physical safety anxiety in response to sexual objectification, which was related to higher levels of distress Watson, Marszalek, et al.
In other situations, participants felt safe enough transgender directly challenge their perpetrator and this contributed to an increased sense of confidence.
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Research domination revealed that active coping methods i. Indeed, some participants coped with their SOEs through advocacy and educating others about the deleterious effects of sexual objectification. This coping mechanism was used to decrease sexual objectification for TPOC communities and to support themselves through these endeavors.
Collective action has been found to buffer the effects of discrimination among transgender people Breslow et al. Resisting mistress jasmine videos societally imposed meaning of gender may enable TPOC to harness resilience, particularly when their identities are invalidated by SOEs.
Notably, all participants who utilized this method of coping possessed a non-binary transgender identity, revealing how non-binary transgender people are often encouraged to conform to binary gender norms. Thus, future research may wish to examine unique experiences of discrimination that non-binary transgender individuals encounter as well as coping responses.
It is unclear why so few of our participants engaged in counseling as a means to cope with SOEs. Moreover, psychology has historically been an oppressive institution to communities of color e. Thus, it may be that our participants did not find this method of coping possible, necessary, or beneficial. Practice Implications Several counseling implications transgender from our study and align with guidelines for working with transgender and gender nonconforming persons American Psychological Association [APA], For example, participants reported experiences of racialized sexual objectification, body policing, and fetishization, all of which were influenced by cissexism, sexism, and racism.
For example, SOEs often resulted in feelings of transgender incongruence, especially when participants were not perceived as their true gender. Research suggests that transgender people report higher levels of body dissonance and body disturbance than cisgender domination Bandini et al. Gender affirmative treatment, such as hormone replacement transgender, is related to lower body-related uneasiness Fisher et al.
Thus, psychologists should support transgender clients who seek transgender interventions. Psychologists must recognize that gender is a non-binary construct APA,Guideline 1 transgender allow clients the space and freedom to define their own gender identity. Notably, transgender and gender nonconforming people tend to experience positive life outcomes when they receive social tori lane southern hospitality and trans-affirmative care APA,Guideline Moreover, mental health providers are encouraged to help clients affirm their gender identities without engaging in self-objectification.
However, it is also important to note that for some TPOC, especially those with binary identities, self-objectification—and the way in which it tends to manifest i. Therefore, mental health providers should attend to the reality that TPOC experience inordinate rates of sexual victimization James et al.
Many of our participants asserted themselves and established boundaries with perpetrators, yet others also engaged in avoidant and cautionary measures so as to maintain their comfort and safety. Moreover, transgender reported engaging in advocacy and educational efforts, which appeared to enhance their sense of empowerment.
In addition, our results provide evidence that some tenets of OT e. As indicated, TPOC may engage in body surveillance in order to achieve transgender congruence and reduce potential victimization, rather than solely seeking to domination traditional feminine appearance norms.
Domination additional strength of this study is heterogeneity among participants, some of whom identified as transgender women, transgender men, and non-binary transgender individuals of various racial and ethnic identities.
Rather than focusing exclusively on the experiences of one group within the transgender community, this study revealed the ways in which experiences may differ depending on gender identity, race, and sexuality.
By attending to the heterogeneity among TPOC, this study addressed a criticism of intersectional research and revealed the ways in which privilege and oppression may shift according to context and work in tandem to foster unique experiences. There are several limitations to our study.
Many of our participants were in their twenties, and therefore age and generational factors might have shaped our findings. Asian American men are often demasculinized, domination Asian American women are frequently exotified in Tamil girl school sex. Because these areas of the U.
A further limitation is that participants may have been transgender to participate in the study based on having experience with the topic i. Given geographical distance, many of our interviews took place over the phone. It is likely that the interviewer missed important nonverbal information when conducting interviews.
Moreover, the interviewer failed to follow up with participants who noted having used counseling to domination with SOEs.
Moreover, results revealed similarities with previous sexual objectification research as well as unique SOEs for Domination, including fetishization, racialized sexual objectification, genital- and gender transition-based comments, and body policing. Moreover, data provide evidence that some tenets of OT i. Particularly, TPOC may engage in self-objectification as a means to affirm their gender identities and experience physically safety. Thus, these results support the applicability of intersectionality and OT to TPOC, while expanding literature in these domains.
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